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Basic Science Scheme of Work for JSS1 Second Term
Disease prevention: Clean water
Prevention of STI’s, HIV\AIDS.
Drug Abuse/Addiction/misuse and sources of drugs
The earth in space.
Description of eclipse, climate and seasons.
Classification of matter.
Plants and animals.
Characteristics of living things.
Activities of living things.
Revision for the term.
Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS1 Second Term
Week 1 Topic: Disease prevention: Clean water
Lesson Note on Disease prevention: Clean water
-Water borne diseases; cholera, diarrhea, typhoid.
-Sources of clean water
-Water treatment processes
-Immunization against human diseases
Water borne diseases
Diseases caused by unclean (dirty) water are called water borne diseases. The following are some of the water borne diseases.
- CHOLERA: It is caused by harmful bacteria that inflame the intestine and cause extreme diarrhea. Cholera is the most common diseases that can be contacted by drinking unclean water.
The symptom of cholera is frequent stooling with vomiting which lead to dehydration. Cholera can be prevented by boiling water before drinking.
- DYSENTRY: It can be caused by a one-celled animal called
Amoeba or by certain bacteria.
- DIARRHOEA: the symptom of diarrhea is frequent stooling which leads to dehydration, abdominal pains, bloating of the belly, feverish conditions and cramps. To prevent diarrhea, the food we eat and our drinking water should be hygienic.
- TYPHOID: It is caused by bacteria called salmolena typhi. Symptoms of typhoid fever manifest within three weeks of infection.
Symptoms include feeling cold, serious headache, running stomach,
Constipation, enlarged liver and spleen and high fever. Typhoid fever could be prevented by boiling water before drinking, hygienic handling of food and being immunized against the diseases.
Sources of clean water.
1 Pipe-borne water
2 Spring water.
3 Rain water
4 Deep well water
Mention three borne diseases.
List the sources of clean water.
Sub-topic: 2: Water treatment processes
FILTERATION: – This is the process of removing impurities i.e. mud, soil, leaves from water. Filter paper is used in the laboratory while filter beds are used at water co-operations.
CHLORINATION: – Chlorine gas is added to water to kill bacteria. It is harmless to human beings. It is also used to purify the water in swimming pools.
DISTILLATION: – This is a process of obtaining pure water from impure water by using an apparatus called Lie Bib Condenser.
DESALINATION: – This is the process of taking away salt from sea water.
FLOCCULATION: This is the dissolution and stirring of alum in water to make tiny solid particles suspended in water to stick together (flocculate).
Advantages of using pipe-borne water
- It is clean and colourless.
- It is odourless.
- it is tasteless.
- It is conveniently available in the home.
- It is treated to kill disease-causing living organisms.
- Suspended matter has been removed.
Immunization is a method of stimulating resistance against specific diseasesin the human body using microorganisms (bacteria or viruses) that have been modified or killed. It is also called vaccination or inoculation. The system in the body that keeps disease-causing organisms from entering our body is called Immune system. Immunization of the child begins during pregnancy. The deadly diseases that require immunization are Polio, chickenpox, Pneumonia, measles, whooping cough, hepatitis, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, tetanus diphtheria etc.
Where to get immunization is a reputable hospital e. g government hospital around you.
- Name three diseases that are caused by unclean water
- What are anti-bodies? Explain how they work
- list all the methods of purifying unclean water
- What is immunization?
Reading assignment: read basic science made easy by F.I. Kehinde pages 48-55.
- List examples of diseases immunization can prevent.
- Write down the time table for various immunizations.
Related Lesson Notes:
Week 2 Topic: Prevention of STI’s, HIV\AIDS.
Lesson Note on Prevention of STI’s, HIV\AIDS.
Content: 1. Definition of STI’s HIV\AIDS
- Safe age for reproduction.
- Abstinence, responsible sexual behavior
- Avoid use of unscreened blood, injection, needles and clippers.
Sub-Topic 1: Definition of STI’s HIV\AIDS.STI’S means sexually transmitted infections. These are diseases that can be contracted through sexual activities. Examples include gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, Chlamydia, Candida infections and HIV and AIDS.
Aids is a very dangerous disease. The full meaning of AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. An aid is caused by a virus called Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV). HIV-AIDS has no cure yet. Human body has an Immune defense system which protects our bodies against attacks from diseases. The virus (HIV) damages this Immune defense system.
When the virus is in the body; it is said to be HIV positive and that is what develops to HIV-AIDS. When this happens, the person’s body will not be able to fight any other diseases (such as fever, cough, tuberculosis, pneumonia etc) that attack person. The person will die after some time. HIV-AIDS can affect anybody no matter the age.
Safe age for reproduction:
The safe age for reproduction is when somebody is fully matured and ready to take responsibilities. You have to answer the following questions:
- Are you matured enough, physically, socially and emotionally?
- Have you finished schooling?
- Do you have a good job to take care of the family you are about to start raising up?
- What are sexually transmitted diseases?
- What is the full meaning of HIV and AIDS?
- Examples of STI are? (3 Examples)
- STI fully means
Sub-topic 2: Prevention of HIV\AIDS and STI’s
Signs of HIV\AIDS, how to detect it, how it can be transferred, and prevention of HIV\AIDS and STI’s.
Signs of AIDS
- Unexpected weight loss
- Getting tired easily
- Fever that is lasting more than one month.
- Diarrhea which is longer than one man
- Cold sores (wounds) all over the body
- Swollen glands at two or more places on the body for more than three months
- Sweating profusely.
How to detect HIV:
It can only be detected through blood test. It does not show in face or body, until it develops into AIDS. It can be passed from man to woman or woman to man.
Ways through which AIDS can be transferred:
- Through sexual intercourse
- Transfusion of unscreened blood
- Contaminated injection needles and syringes, razor blades, knife and other sharp objects.
- Through contaminated instrument during ear piercing, circumcision and putting of tribal marks
- Pregnant mothers to unborn babies
Prevention of STI’s, HIV-AIDS:
- Abstinence from sex when you are not married
- Husbands and wives should be faithful to each other
III. Use sterilized clippers, needles and injections
- Screen the blood vary well before transfusion or passing to the
body of a sick person. Safe age for reproduction is full adult.
- Boys and girls should wait till time of marriage before having sex.
- Do not have boy or girl friend before marriage.
- What are antibodies and what are their functions?
- What are ways of preventing STI and HIV
- Name three diseases that are caused by contact with human waste and dirty water.
- How can you detect HIV-AIDS
- What is the function of the body immune defense system?
STAN pages 94-95 and basic science made easy by Kehinde pages 56-59.
Discuss the consequences of irresponsible sexual behavior among youths.
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NOTE: The complete 1st, 2nd and 3rd term Basic Science Lesson Note for JSS1 is available, Click here to Download it.