Sample lesson note for Secondary school teachers especially the English Language Teachers.


School:         (put name of school here)

Session:       2020/2021.

Term:          First Term

Subject:      English Language.

Topic:          Parts of Speech.

Class:           JSS 1

Class size:

Average Age:


Day Date Time Duration


Time Table Fit: The lesson on parts of speech has no bearing previous lesson on Punctuations.

Set Induction: The teacher asks the students to mention any part of speech they know.

Specific Objectives:

Main Aim: By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to define the term parts of speech, state the organs of speech, and define descriptive essay.

Subsidiary Aims: By the end of the lesson, students should be able to;

Cognitive Domain:

  1. define the term parts of speech,
  2. state the various parts of speech,
  3. recognise the diagram of the various organs of speech,
  4. state these speech organs and their uses,
  5. state the meaning of descriptive essay and its features.

Affective Domain: show full interest in the classroom discussions.

Psychomotor Domain:

  1. write out the meaning of parts of speech,
  2. write out the various parts of speech,
  3. draw the organs of speech in English,
  4. write the uses of these organs in speech production,
  5. write out the meaning of descriptive essay and its features.

Assumptions: The students may have heard of parts of speech in the past.

Anticipated problem: The students may not have known the most important organ of speech.

Possible solution: The teacher tells the students that the ‘tongue’ is the most mobile, crucial and essential organ of speech because it moves in almost all directions in the mouth.

instructional Materials: English Language textbook, chart on the human organs of speech, audio tape.

Teaching techniques: Teacher – students interaction/demonstration methods.


Day 1, Period 1:


Parts of speech is the category to which a word is grouped according to the function it performs when arranged in a sentence. Words in the same part of speech has similar grammatical properties.

Step 2: Categories of parts of speech.

Parts of speech is divided into two namely; the grammatical and the lexical parts of speech. The grammatical parts of speech are: articles and determiners. While the lexical parts of speech are:  Nouns,verbs,pronouns,adverbs,adjectives,prepositions,conjunctions and exclamation or interjection.

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Click Here to Download Comprehensive and Detailed English Language Lesson notes for Secondary school from JSS1 – SS3

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Day 2, Period 2:


       Diagram of the human organs of speech.

human organ of speech

The human organs of speech (above) are the organs we use for the production of speech sounds.

Step 4: Description of the human speech organs:

  1. The tongue: This is the most essential and crucial organ of speech. It moves about in the mouth in all directions to produce sounds as it articulates with or touches other organs of speech. We consider the height of the tongue (whether high or low) in relate to the roof of the mouth,and its position, in terms of front or backward movement, before naming a particular sound.
  2. The Lips: These are also important in the production of sounds such as bilabial sounds, e.g; /p/,/b/,/m/,/w/. We consider whether the lips are rounded or unrounded. If the lips are rounded, the vowels produced are called rounded vowels.
  3. The teeth: These are stationary organs of speech which other organs (such as the tip of the tongue and lips) articulate with to produce sounds like: /ð/,/f/,/v/.
  4. The alveolar ridge: This is located between the hard palate and the upper teeth. It is the point where the tip of the tongue articulates with to form or produce alveolar sounds such as; /t/,/d/,/l/,/n/.
  5. The soft palate: This can be found behind the hard palate. Velum is capable of being raised or lowered, and the extremity of which is the uvula. The base of the tongue articulates with the soft palate to produce ‘velar sounds’ such as /k/,/g/,/ŋ/.
  6. The nasal cavity: This is an open space behind the nose and above the palate where air passes through when we breathe. The proper production of nasal sounds are made possible through the help of the cavity. The sounds such as; /m/,/n/,/ŋ/ are all nasalized sounds.
  7. The vocal cords: These are the two folds of ligaments and elastic tissues found in the Larynx or Adam’s Apple. In between the folds is an opening which is referred to as the glottis. If the opening is wide enough whereby the pulmonic air has a free passage, the cords ‘will not vibrate’. However, if the opening is too small,the air cause the cords ‘to vibrate’ in the process of forcing its way out of the small opening. As a result of the vibration, voiced sounds will be produced.

The place where the glottal sounds are produced is known as the pharynx. E.g. /h/.

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Click Here to Download Comprehensive and Detailed English Language Lesson notes for Secondary school from JSS1 – SS3

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Day 3; Period 3.


Descriptive essay is an essay that requires the writer to give clear picture of someone, something or event in words. It requires you to be able to vividly describe event so that those who did not see or experience it will feel really involved in the description. When describing a person, place, animal or thing, use present tense.

Descriptive essay is close to narrative essay because “past tense” may be used.

Outline or features of a descriptive essay.

(i) topic  (ii) introduction  (iii) body of the essay  (iv) conclusion.

In writing descriptive essay, the following steps should be followed for a good write-up:

  1. Reveal or identify who or what you are describing.
  2. Explain how or where to find your object of description, i.e. the address or location of the person or object.
  3. Tell the features of the person or object of description.
  4. Give the good qualities of the person or object you are describing.
  5. Tell the bad qualities or disadvantages of the person or object under description. (Note that the bad qualities should be less than the good qualities.

Step 6: Descriptive Essay Sample:

Descriptive Essay Examples

Descriptive essays are a powerful way to communicate an experience you’ve had or illustrate a subject in which you have expertise. Whether you plan to write a personal, subjective account or a more rigorous description of a given subject, these descriptive essay examples will guide you to success.


Descriptive Essay Examples:

                  The Thunderstorm at Onne Port.


My visit to my uncle’s residence near the Onne sea port in Rivers State was an eye opener to me as I witnessed a massive thunderstorm close to the Atlantic ocean. I watched the thunderstorm, far out over the ocean. It began quietly, and with nothing visible except tall dark clouds and a rolling tide. There was just a soft murmur of thunder as I watched the horizon from his balcony. Over the next few minutes, the clouds closed and reflected lightning set the rippling ocean aglow. The thunderheads had covered up the sun, shadowing the vista. It was peaceful for a long time.


I was looking up when the first clear thunderbolt struck. It blazed against the sky and sea; I could see its shape in perfect reverse colors when I blinked. More followed. The thunder rumbled and stuttered as if it could hardly keep up. There were openings in the cloud now, as if the sky were torn, and spots of brilliant blue shone above the shadowed sea.


I looked down then, watching the waves. Every bolt was answered by a moment of spreading light on the surface. The waves were getting rough, rising high and crashing hard enough that I could hear them.


Then came the rain. It came all at once and in sheets, soaking the sand, filling the sea. It was so dense I could only see the lightning as flashes of light. It came down so hard the thunder was drowned. Everything was rhythmic light and shadow, noise and silence, blending into a single experience of all five senses.


In an instant it stopped. The storm broke. The clouds came apart like curtains. The rain still fell, but softly now. It was as if there had never been a storm at all, except for a single signature. A rainbow, almost violently bright, spread above and across the water. I could see the horizon again.

Students’ Evaluation :

The teacher evaluates the students as follows:

  1. What are parts of speech?
  2. Mention the two grammatical and eight lexical parts of speech you know.
  3. State four human organs of speech.
  4. Define descriptive essay.
  5. List the features of a descriptive essay.
  6. Mention one descriptive essay topic.

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Click Here to Download Comprehensive and Detailed Lesson notes

for Secondary school from JSS1 to SS3

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Home work:

  1. Give a detailed diagram of the human organ of speech.
  2. Write an essay on a fire outbreak in a famous market in your locality. (Not less than 150 words).


The teacher concludes the lesson by giving the major highlights on the lessons.

Teacher’s Evaluation:




Head teacher’s signature:


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  • Sekinat Ismaila Ahmed,

    Very nice one. Thank you so much. But pls can I get a lesson plan for jss 1 home Economics class?

    • Edupodia

      You are most welcome. We don’t have lesson plans on Home Economics but we do have the LESSON NOTES. You can use this link to access Home Economics notes:

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