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Basic Science Scheme of Work for JSS3 Second Term
WEEK 1: Revision of first term’s work
WEEK 2: Non-Living Things – Atomic Structure; Elements; Compounds; Mixtures
WEEK 3: Chemical Symbols, Formulae and Equations.
WEEK 4: Resources from Living Things; Plant resources ; Animal resources
WEEK 5: Resources from Non- Living things; Soil; Solid minerals
WEEK 6: Skill Acquisition
WEEK 7: Ethical Issues in science and Development
WEEK 8: Light Energy
WEEK 9: Magnetism
WEEK 10: Revision
WEEK 11: Examination
Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS3 Second Term
WEEK 1: Revision of first term’s work
Related Lesson Notes:
Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS3 Second Term
WEEK 2 TOPIC: Non-Living Things – Atomic Structure; Elements; Compounds; Mixtures
Lesson Note On Non-Living Things – Atomic Structure; Elements; Compounds; Mixture
- Meaning of Atom; Concept of Electrons, Protons and Neutrons
- Simple atomic model; Properties of atoms
- Concept of Elements, Molecules, Compounds and Mixtures
Sub-Topic 1: Meaning of Atom; Concept of Electrons, Protons and Neutrons
MEANING OF ATOM
Matter (solid, liquid or gas) is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
An atom is the smallest particle of matter which can take part in a chemical reaction.
An English Chemist called John Dalton (1766 – 1844) put forward some statements about the atom in1803 and 1808 which are referred to as Dalton’s atomic theory. These helped to explain some observations about the structure and behavior of atoms. However with advancement in science and the contribution of more scientists like J.J Thomson in 1897, Robert Millikan in1909-1916 and Earnest Rutherford in 1911, the theory has been modified. Presently, scientists agree that:
- An atom is made up of a number of small particles namely, the electron, the proton and the neutron. None of these can exist on its own naturally.
- An atom is the smallest particle of matter that can take part in a chemical reaction.
- In nuclear reactions atoms can be created or destroyed.
- Some atoms of the same element have different masses for example in those elements that have isotopes.
- Most inorganic compounds are formed by the joining of atoms of two or more elements in a definite whole number ratio, but for large organic molecules such as proteins, fats and starches which involve the joining of thousands of atoms, this theory does not hold.
CONCEPT OF ELECTRONS, PROTONS AND NEUTRONS
An atom is made up of three fundamental particles; the electrons, protons and neutrons. Structurally, an atom consists of a small dense, centrally placed nucleus which is surrounded by electrons. The nucleus is made up of the protons and the neutrons. The protons and neutrons are collectively called the nucleons. Most of the atom is empty space. Most of the mass is concentrated in the nucleus.
ELECTRONS: These are tiny particles situated at a comparatively great distance from the centre of the atom. They travel rapidly and continuously in orbits around the nucleus. An electron has a negative charge and a very negligible mass of about 9.1 × 10-28g, this is about 1800 times lighter than the hydrogen atom.
PROTONS: These are tiny, positively charged particles found in the nucleus of an atom. The positive charge is equal in magnitude to the negative charge on the electron. Thus, an atom with the same number of electrons and protons is electrically neutral. The mass of the proton is 1 × 10-24g, which is about 1800 times larger than that of the electron.
NEUTRONS: These are tiny particles found in the nucleus of an atom. They have no electric charge i.e. they are neutral. Neutrons have about the same mass as a proton.
- What is an atom?
- Name the fundamental particles of an atom
- State the charges on these particles and their relative masses.
- Who was the first chemist to propound theories about atoms?
Sub-Topic 2: SIMPLE ATOMIC MODEL
Ernest Rutherford in 1909 proposed a model of the atom. His model showed a small dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded by relatively empty space and electrons continuously orbiting the nucleus at a great distance from it. However in the light of further experimental results, other models of the atom have been proposed.
The electrons occupy different orbits or shells called K,L,M,N, shells or 1,2,3,4, shells round the nucleus. These shells may also have sub shells designated s, p d, subshells.
PROPERTIES OF ATOMS
Atoms have several properties that help distinguish one type of atom from another and determine how atoms change under certain conditions. These properties include;
- The Atomic number: The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called its atomic number (Z). All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons and so have the same atomic number. Atoms are normally electrically neutral so the atomic number also shows how many electrons an atom has. However, an atom may lose or gain an electron to become a charged particle called an When an atom loses an electron it forms a positively charged ion called a cation. When an atom gains an electron it forms a negatively charged ion called an anion. The number of electrons thus determines many of the chemical and physical properties of an atom.
- The Mass number: The sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called the mass number of the atom (A). The number of neutrons is denoted by N.
The relationship between the number of neutrons and protons is given by; A=Z – N
- The Atomic Mass and Weight: Scientists use a device called a mass spectrometer to measure atomic mass. The mass of an atom is measured in terms of a unit called the atomic mass unit (amu). An amu is defined as exactly 1/12 the mass of an atom of carbon with six protons and six electrons.
An element’s atomic weight represents the mass of one mole of its atoms. A mole is the mass of a very large number of atoms. A mole of atoms of any element contains 6.02 × 1023 atoms. This is also called the molar mass.
- Isotopes: Atoms of the same element that differ in mass number (A) are called isotopes. They have the same atomic number (Z). These elements have the same number of protons in their nucleus but different numbers of neutrons. For example, hydrogen has three isotopes 1H; 2H; 3H called Protium, Deuterium and Tritium respectively.
- Draw a simple atomic model of Helium atom with two electrons, two protons and two neutrons.
- Briefly describe the three types of hydrogen atoms that exist.
- Write the (a) mass number (b) atomic number of Sodium atom.
Sub-Topic 3: Concept of Elements, Molecules, Compounds and Mixtures
ELEMENT: A substance that is made up of only one type of atoms is called an element. An element cannot be broken down into anything else. Examples are magnesium, copper, zinc, gold, iron, oxygen, carbon, chlorine, etc.
MOLECULE: The smallest unit of a substance which can exist on its own and retain the properties of the substance is called a molecule. A molecule may be made up of one atom only e.g. Argon (Ar) or a combination of atoms e.g. Oxygen (O2).
COMPOUND: A substance formed by the chemical combination of the atoms of different elements is a compound. Examples are Sodium chloride (salt), water, kaolin, carbon (iv), oxide, sand, etc.
MIXTURE: A substance formed when elements or compounds are mixed without any chemical reaction occurring is called a mixture. Examples are crude oil, soil, cup of tea, air, palm oil, solution of salt and water, etc. The components of a mixture can be separated by physical means like evaporation, magnetization, filtration, Sublimation, etc.
PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES
(a) Chemical Properties:
- Some elements are very reactive e.g. Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Oxygen, etc. Sodium metal readily gets ignited on exposure to air.
- Some elements are moderately reactive e.g. when iron is exposed to moist air it gradually begins to rust.
- Some elements are virtually unreactive e.g. Gold does not rust when exposed to moisture.
(b) Physical Properties
(i) Some elements have light density e.g. Hydrogen gas while some are heavy e.g.
Gold, Lead, etc.
(ii) Some elements are colourless e.g. Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen while some are
coloured e.g. Chlorine, Bromine, etc.
- Solid, non-metallic elements are brittle and have a dull surface e.g. Phosphorus and Sulphur while the metallic elements are malleable and have a shiny surface e.g. Iron and Aluminium
- All metals exist as solids at room temperature except Mercury which is a liquid.
(a) Physical Properties:
- Most compounds formed from the chemical combination of metals and non-metals are soluble in water but not in organic solvents like kerosene.
- Compounds formed from the chemical combination of non-metals are soluble in organic solvents like kerosene and petrol.
- Compounds have definite melting and boiling points.
(b) Chemical Properties
(i) Some chemicals react chemically with acids to form a new compound e.g. sodium
hydroxide and hydrochloric acid react chemically to form sodium chloride and
(ii) Some compounds decompose on heating e.g. calcium trioxocarbonate (iv) on
heating produces calcium oxide and carbon (iv) oxide.
- MIXTURES: Physical Properties:
- Mixtures can be separated by physical means.
- Mixtures do not have definite boiling or melting points.
- The colour of individual constituents is visible.
USES OF SOME ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES
USES OF ELEMENTS
(a) Gold is used in making jewelry and coins. It is also used in art work and dentistry. Radioisotopes of gold are used in biological research and in treatment of cancer.
(b) Iron is used for production of galvanized sheet metal and electromagnets. Iron compounds are used for medicinal purposes in the treatment of anemia and also in tonics.
USES OF COMPOUNDS
(a) Kaolin is used in the manufacture of fine porcelain and china ware; pottery, stoneware and bricks; as a filler for pigments and manufacture of paper.
(b) Salt is used as a seasoning; as preservative for meats; in dyeing and in manufacture of soap and glass. Table salt is combined with small quantities of iodide to prevent occurrence of goiter. Industrially salt is a source of chlorine and sodium. Chlorine is used in manufacture of hydrochloric acid, chloroform and bleaching powder. Sodium is used for sodium carbonate, baking soda and sodium hydroxide.
USES OF MIXTURES
(a) Crude oil is used as fuel (petrol, kerosene, diesel, gas, etc.) and raw material in the chemical industry. Derivatives are used in manufacture of medicine, fertilizers, plastics, paints, building materials and for generating electricity.
(b) Coal is used as fuel. It is used by electric power plants to produce electricity. Industrially it can be converted to coke and mixed with iron ore and limestone to produce iron. The coal gases given off during the process of coke formation are used to manufacture solvents, fertilizers, medicine, pesticides, etc.
- Define the following terms and give two examples of each (a) element (b) molecule (c) compound (d) mixture
- Mention two things each example can be used for.
Enumerate three differences between elements, compounds and mixtures
- Complete the missing information below
- Air is a mixture of gases, mention three of the gases and state two uses of each
- Collect twelve (12) materials from your environment and classify them into elements, compounds and mixtures.
Functional Basic Science for JJS Book 3; by Onyirioha, C. U et al. (pgs 70-80)
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