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Chemistry Scheme of Work for SS1 First Term
WEEK 1: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
WEEK 2: NATURE OF MATTER
WEEK 3: ELEMENTS
WEEK 4: MOLECULES AND ATOMICITY
WEEK 5: PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER
WEEK 6: THE RELATIVE ATOMIC MASSES OF ELEMENTS
WEEK 7: COMPOUNDS
WEEK 8: IUPAC NOMENCLATURE OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
WEEK 9: MIXTURES
WEEK 10: PRACTICALS ON SEPERATION OF MIXTURES
Lesson Note on Chemistry for SS1 First Term
WEEK 1 TOPIC: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
LESSON NOTE ON INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
Chemistry as a Subject and as a Central Science
Chemistry as a Subject and as a Central Science
CHEMISTRY AS A DISCIPLINE
Human mind has always been very curious to make investigations and know about various activities/phenomena occurring around him. This curiosity has led him to collect information through experiments and observations. The curious mind has also been responsible for the research activities of various people all over the world. The knowledge and data base acquired like this is then systematized in a way that the mankind takes maximum benefit out of it. This knowledge base is known as science. Science may, thus, be broadly defined as systematized knowledge gained by mankind through observations and experimentation. Science has been further classified into different branches due to its enormous expansion and diversified fields. Some examples are: Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geology, etc. Chemistry is one of the most important discipline of science to which this present book is devoted.
CHEMISTRY AS A SUBJECT AND AS A CENTRAL SCIENCE
Chemistry may be defined as the branch of science which deals with the study of matter, its composition, its properties and the changes which it undergoes in composition as well as in energy during various processes.
The word chemistry has been derived from the word alchemy, which means ‘study of met also Alchemy itself might have come from al chemical marked effect on our present day life. Chemistry has helped us to meet all our requirement for better living. The continuous
research in the field of chemistry has resulted in the production of useful materials such as, clothes, drugs, artificial foods, plastics, rubbers, fertilizers, insecticides, weed killers, life
supporting products, etc., which have revolutionised our life.
Our life would have been very dull and dreary without the knowledge of chemistry. In fact, we can say, chemistry is everywhere in the world around us; it is, in what we eat; in what we breathe; in how we live and even in what we are.
CHEMISTRY-A CENTRAL SCIENCE
Modem chemistry is an abstract subject whose study presents a great intellectual challenges and rewards. It is a practical field at the hub of man’s future.
Modern chemistry is CENTRAL DISCIPLINE, which correlates almost all branches of science. It is used to study biological, physical, medical as well as environmental phenomena. For example, a chemist works with:
- biologist to understand life processes and metabolic activities,
- physicist to understand properties of matter and to develope new sources of energy,
- geologist to probe outer and inner space,
- physician to design new drugs and medicines,
- ecologist to make improvement in environment,
- engineers and technical manager to provide material and energy for better life.
Chemistry, thus responds to all social needs. It plays critical role in any attempt to: discover new processes; tap new energy sources; develop new materials feed the people properly; improve health and conquer disease, monitor and protect our environment.
BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY
Chemistry can be broadly divided into Pure Chemistry and Applied Chemistry.
- PURE CHEMISTRY
Pure chemistry deals with the attempt to get better understanding of nature.
Pure chemistry is further divided into three main branches. Organic chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry and Physical chemistry. These main branches have been further divided into large number of sub-sections. The main branches meaning divided into large number of sub-sections. The main branches are described briefly as follows:
- Organic Chemistry. This branch of chemistry deals with the study of structure, chemical composition and characteristics of compounds of carbon and hydrogen elements (Hydrocarbons) and their derivatives.
- Inorganic Chemistry. This branch concerns itself to the study of structure, composition and behaviour of the inorganic compounds, i.e., the compounds other than hydrocarbons or their derivatives. Such compounds are found in the crust of the earth and constitute non-living matter.
- Physical Chemistry. This branch deals with the study of fundamental principles governing various chemical transformations and chemical systems. It is primarily concerned with laws and theories of different branches of chemistry.
- APPLIED CHEMISTRY
Applied chemistry deals with the application of the knowledge of chemistry for the benefit of mankind. The different branches of applied chemistry are as under:
- Analytical Chemistry. This branch involves collection of techniques which allows exact determination of the composition of the given sample of material. It has been further divided into two categories:
(a) Qualitative analysis. It deals with the identification of various constituent particles (atoms, ions, molecules) present in the material.
(b) Quantitative analysis. It deals with the estimation of various constituents in the material.
- Industrial Chemistry. This branch deals with the chemistry involved in different industrial processes such as manufacture of various chemical substances.
- Biochemistry. This branch concerns itself to the study of metabolic pathways and enzymology pertaining to living organism. It deals with molecular, cellular and chemical activities of living organisms.
- Geochemistry. This branch deals with the chemical processes occurring on earth such as metamorphism of rocks, formation of petroleum, etc. It also deals with the composition of soils and rocks.
- Petrochemistry. It is the branch of chemistry which deals with the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products and raw materials.
- Radiochemistry. It is a branch of chemistry which deals with the study of radioactive materials, both natural as well as man-made. It also involves the use of radioactive materials to study the pathways/mechanism of ordinary chemical reactions.
- Biotechnology. It refers to the technological applications which uses biological systems, living organisms or their cterivatives to make or modify products or process for specific use. Biotechnology, infact, combines various disciplines like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, embryology and cell biology for developing techniques for beneficial effects.
- Medicinal or Pharmaceutical Chemistry. It is scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacology, which is involved with designing synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. Medicinal chemistry involves the identification, synthesis and development of new chemical entities suitable for therapeutic use. Medicinal chemistry is highly interdisciplinary science that combines organic chemistry with biochemistry, pharmacology, *pharmacognosy; molecular biology, statistics and physical chemistry.
Environmental Chemistry. It is a branch of chemistry which deals with scientific study of chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. Environmental chemistry is also an interdisciplinary science that includes atmospheric, aquatic, and soil chemistry along with analytical chemistry, environmental studies and other areas of science.
Since chemistry is a central science because of its multidisciplinary nature, therefore, chemistry students can persue their careers in the field of industries, education, research work, government agencies and other non raditional fields. Some of the careers opportunities, that a student with degree in chemistry can have are as follows:
- Industries. Chemical industries employ about 66% of all the chemists. The majority of them find opportunity in research and product development (Rand D), sales, or marketing. Many of them work in quality control analysis and testing products. Other find work in areas like industrial hygiene and safety or regulatory work for environmental compliance.
*pharmacognosy is a study of medicines derived from natural
- Academic Institutions. Educational institutions employ about 26% of the chemists. Ph. D. degrees are required for most of academic positions at the colleges and universities. Some of chemists having graduation degree in education take up teaching assignments in high schools.
- Government Agencies. Government-employ about 7Cfr: of all the chemists. Federal, local and state Government agencies hire chemists for variety of jobs including basic research, testing work required to enforce government regulations, technical program managers, authors/ editors of technical documents and government regulations.
- Non-traditional Fields. A small percentage of chemists (about 1%) find work in non -traditional fields. They get opportunities to become patent lawyers, science writers, information specialists, technical librarians, technical consultants or business owners.
Identify two applied chemistry professions and explain the chemistry they practice.
Hints: For reference, the two important professions associated with applied chemistry are being discussed as follows:
- Analyst: Analysts find jobs in chemical industry, food industry and pathological laboratories. In chemical industries, they control the quality of final product through chemical analysis of the product. In food laboratories, they analyse the food items to detect adultration. In pathological labs they carry out chemical tests on sample of blood or urine to help the doctor for diagnosis of disease.
- Research scientist. Research scientists find jobs in pharmaceutical companies where they can use their knowledge of chemistry in developing more convenient and economical methods for the synthesis of drugs. They can also help in designing new drugs.
Different career options in chemistry are summarized in Fig. 11
Various careers associated with chemistry.
Chemistry is the study of matter, its composition, its properties and changes which it undergoes in composition as well as energy during various transformations. Chemistry is a central science discipline which correlates various important branches of science. Chemistry can be divided into pure and applied chemistry. Pure Chemistry has three main branches viz organic, inorganic and physical chemistry while chemistry applied has branches namely biochemistry, analytical
chemistry, radiochemistry, geochemistry, petro chemistry, environmental chemistry and biotechnology.
- Which branch of pure chemistry deals with the study of compounds associated with non-living sources?
(a) Physical chemistry (b) Organic chemistry
(c) Biochemistry (d) Inorganic chemistry
- Which of the following is not a applied chemistry?
(a) Geochemistry (b) Biochemistry
(c) Radiochemistry (d) inorganic chemistry.
- In order to design new drug, a chemist has to seek the help of
(a) Engineer (b) Geologist
(c) Zoologist (d) Physician.
- The branch of chemistry which deals with the study of hydrocarbons is called
(a) Organic chemistry (c) Radiochemistry
(b) Inorganic chemistry (d) Nuclear chemistry.
- Fill in the Blanks
- Complete the following sentences by supplying appropriate words:
(i) Ecologist and chemist work together to ….. .
(ii) The branch of pure chemistry which deals with study of fundamental laws and principles is called …..
(iii) Qualitative analysis deals with ….. .
(iv) Radiochemistry deals with the study of ….. substances.
(v) The phenomenon of metamorphosis of rocks is studied by ….. branch of chemistry. m.
- Define chemistry and its various disciplines.
- Comment on the statement that chemistry is a central science discipline.
- Write the names of various disciplines of applied chemistry. Define any two of them.
- Name and define various branches of pure chemistry.
- Give a brief account of various career options of degree holder in chemistry.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
When conducting research, scientists use the scientific method to collect measurable, empiricalevidence in an experiment related to a hypothesis (often in the form of an if/then statement), the results aiming to support or contradict a theory.
The steps of the scientific method s are:
- Make an observation or observations.
- Ask questions about the observations and gather information.
- Form a hypothesis — a tentative description of what’s been observed, and make predictions based on that hypothesis.
- Test the hypothesis and predictions in an experiment that can be reproduced.
- Analyze the data and draw conclusions; accept or reject the hypothesis or modify the hypothesis if necessary.
- Reproduce the experiment until there are no discrepancies between observations and theory.
CHEMISTRY LABORATORY COMMON EQUIPMENT
Below are photos and names of common lab equipment you will encounter in Chemistry
A List of Chemistry Laboratory Apparatus and Their Uses
Functions of common pieces of laboratory equipment.
In most labs, you’ll encounter the same basic apparatus. Here, the use for each is explained. You will learn about:
- Safety goggles and safety equipment
- Erlenmeyer flasks, AKA conical flasks
- Florence flasks, AKA boiling flasks
- Test tubes
- Watch glasses
- Graduated cylinders
- Volumetric flasks
- Ring stands, rings, and clamps
- Tongs and forceps
- Spatulas and scoopulas
- Bunsen Burners
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