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Chemistry Scheme of Work for SS1 Third Term
1. Revision /Acids: Properties, Preparation and Uses. pH Scale
2-3. Bases: Properties, Preparation. Salts: Classification, Methods of preparation, Types and Characteristics
4. Carbon- Allotropes and their Structures, Properties, Differences between Diamond and Graphite.
5. Carbon (ii) Oxide (CO), Carbon (iv) Oxide (CO2): their Preparation, Properties and Uses.
6. Coal: Types of Coal, Destructive Distillation of Coal, Uses of the Products, Coke: Gasification and Uses.
7. Metallic Carbonate: Occurrences, Preparation and Uses, Test for Trioxocarbonate ion. Trioxocarbonate (iv) acid: Preparation, Properties and Uses.
8-9. Introduction to Hydrocarbons: Sources of Hydrocarbons, Classification of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons. Petroleum and Natural gases: Refining of Petroleum by Fractional Distillation, Uses of different Fractions, Cracking of Petroleum (Thermal and Catalytic), Anti-knock and Octane rating.
10. Applied Chemistry: Raw material used in Chemical industries and their Sources. Division of the Chemical Industries: Heavy chemicals, Fine chemicals, Fertilizers, Plastics, Metallurgy, Pharmaceutical, Glass, Ceramics, Cements, Soap and Detergents.
New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools by Osei Yaw Ababio
New System Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools by Tan Yan Ton el al
WAEC past Questions and Answers
UTME past Questions and Answers
Lesson Note on Chemistry for SS1 Second Term
WEEK 1 TOPIC: Revision /Acids: Properties, Preparation and Uses. pH Scale
Lesson Note On Revision /Acids: Properties, Preparation and Uses. pH Scale
- Preparation and uses.
Definition: An acid is substance which in aqueous solution produces hydroxonium ion (H3O+) or hydrogen ion (H+) as the only positive ion. Also, acids can be referred to as proton donor.
CLASSES OF ACIDS
There are two classes of acids:
(1). Organic acids occur as natural products in plants and animal material.
|Citric acids||Lime, Lemon|
|Fatty acids||Fats and oils|
|Ascorbic acids (Vitamin C).||Oranges|
(2). Inorganic acid: Inorganic acid can be prepared from mineral elements or inorganic matter.
|Hydrochloric acid||HCl||Hydrogen, Chlorine|
|Tetraoxosulphate(VI) acid||H2SO4||Hydrogen, Sulphur & Oxygen|
|Trioxonitrate(VI) acid||HNO3||Hydrogen, Nitrogen & Oxygen|
An acid is also defined as a substance which produces hydroxonium ion as the only positive ion when dissolved in water.
H+(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq)
Acid can be dilute or concentrated depending on the amount of water added. A dilute acid is acid produced when a large amount of water is added to a small amount of acid. A concentrated acid is acid produced when only a little amount of water is added to a relatively large amount of acid.
STRENGTH OF AN ACID
The strength of an acid can either be weak or strong.
(1) Strong acids: are acids which ionize completely in aqueous solution and such acid solution having a high concentration of H+. Examples are HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3.
H2SO4 2H+ + SO42-
HNO3 H+ + NO3–
HCl H+ + Cl–
(2) Weak acids: are acids which ionize or dissociate slightly or partially in aqueous solution and such acid solution have a low concentration of hydrogen ions. Examples are ethanoic acid (CH3COOH), H2CO3, H3PO4, H2SO3.
H2CO3 2H+ + CO32-
H3PO4 3H+ + PO43-
CH3COOH H+ + CH3COO–
H2SO3 2H+ + SO32-
BASICITY OF AN ACID
The basicity of an acid is the number of replaceable hydrogen ions, H+, in one molecule of the acid.
|Tetraoxosulphate (vi) acid||Dibasic|
- Define the term acid
- Differentiate between strong acid and concentrated acid
- What is the basicity of the following acids: HCl, HNO3, H2SO4
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ACID
- They have a sour taste.
- They turn blue litmus paper to red.
- They are corrosive in nature especially the strong acid.
- In aqueous solution, they conduct electricity.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACID
Reaction with metals: They react with metals to liberate hydrogen gas and salt of metal i.e
Acid + Metal Salt + Hydrogen gas.
E.g. 2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
H2SO4(aq) + Mg(s) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)
They react with soluble bases to form salt and water only. This reaction is known as neutralization.
Acid + Base salt + water
E.g H2SO4(aq) + 2KOH(aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
2HCl(aq) + CaO(s) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l)
- They react with trioxocarbonates (iv) salts to liberate carbon (iv) oxide, salt and water e. Acid + trioxocarbonate (iv) Salt + Water + CO2
E.g 2HCl (aq) + Na2CO3(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
PREPARATION OF ACIDS
Acid can be prepared by using the following methods:
- Dissolving an acid anhydride in water: Acid anhydride is oxides of non-metal that dissolve in water to produce the corresponding acids e.g SO2, CO2, CO, NO2, SO3.
SO2(g) + H2O(l) H2SO3(aq)
CO2(g) + H2O(l) H2CO3(aq)
SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq)
- Combination of constituent elements.
(a).Burning hydrogen in chlorine, in the presence of activated charcoal as the catalyst, yields HCl gas which dissolves readily in water to give HCl acid.
H2(g) + Cl2(g) activated charcoal 2HCl(g)
(b)Heating hydrogen gas and bromine vapour, in the presence of platinum as the catalyst, produces hydrogen bromide which dissolves readily in water to form hydrobromic acid.
H2(g) + Br2(g) Platinum 2HBr(g)
(3)By displacement of a weak or more volatile acid from it salt by a stronger or less
volatile acid. For example
(a)Displacement of the more volatile hydrogen chloride from metallic chloride by the less volatile concentrated tetraoxosulphate (vi) acid.
NaCl(s) + H2SO4(aq) NaHSO4(aq) + HCl(aq)
(b)Displacement of weaker trioxoborate (iii) acid from ‘borax’ by tetraoxosulphate (vi) acid.
Na2B4O7(s) + H2SO4(aq) + 5H2O(l) Na2SO4(aq) + 4H3BO3(aq)
Borax Trioxoborate (iii) acid
(4)By precipitating an insoluble sulphide from a metallic salt by hydrogen sulphide
Pb (CH3COO)2(aq) + H2S(g) PbS(s) + CH3COOH(aq)
Uses of acid
(1) Acids are useful chemicals which are used in many industries to make other consumer chemicals such as fertilizers, detergent and drugs.
(2) They are used in industrial process as drying agents, oxidizing agents and catalysts.
USES OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC ACID
|HCl||Needed by industries to make chemicals used to remove rust.
Used to clean the surface of metals before electroplating.
|H2SO4||Needed by industries to make chemicals used as a drying and dehydrating agent.
Used as an electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators
Required in oil refineries.
|HNO3||Needed by industries for making fertilizers, explosives etc.|
|Boric acid||Used as mild antiseptic or germicide.|
|Tartaric acid||Used in making baking soda, soft drinks and health salts|
|Acetic acid (ethanoic acid)||Used in preserving food.
Used in dyeing silk and other textiles.
|Citric acid||Used in making fruits juice.|
|Fatty acid (palmitic and stearic acid)||Used in the manufacture of soap. This process is known as saponification.
Fatty acid + Caustic soda Soap + H2O.
- Mention three physical properties of acids
- Using balanced equations, state the chemical properties of acids
- State two methods of preparing acids
- Outline the uses of acids
All acidic solution contains H+ and all alkaline solution contains OH– ions. The PH scale measure the concentration of H+ ions present in a solution and start from 0 to 14
DEFINITION OF pH
pH is defined as the negative logarithms of the hydrogen ion [H+] concentration to the base of 10.
i.e. pH = -log [H+].
Thus: If [H+] = 0.00001 or 10-5.
log [H+] = log10-5 = -5
pH= -log [H+] = – (-5) = 5.
If [H+] =10-x
Therefore, pH= -log10-x = – (-x) = x
If [H+] = 10-2, PH = 2
DEFINITION OF pOH
POH is defined as the negative logarithms of the hydroxide ion [OH–] concentration to the base of 10.
i.e. pOH= -log [OH–].
PH is the degree of acidity. A solution with PH 7 is neutral. A solution with PH less than 7, i.e. PH 6,5,4, e.t.c, indicate acidity increasing as the numbers decreases. A solution with PH greater than 7, i.e. PH 8,9,10, e.t.c, indicate alkalinity increasing as the numbers increase.
PH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Increasing acidity Neutral Increasing alkalinity
A solution with PH 1 is very acidic [with high concentration of H+]. A solution with pH 13 is very alkaline [with low concentration of H+, but high concentration of OH–].
Note that: If pH is 1, it has concentration of H+ 10 times greater than pH 2 and 100 times greater than PH 3 e.t.c.
pH 1 > pH 2 > pH 3.
Concentration of H+ 10-1 10-2 10-3.
0.1 0.01 0.001.
Relationship between pH and pOH.
H2O H+ + OH–
From conductivity measurement, [H+]=10-7moldm-3, [OH–]=10-7moldm-3.
[H+] [OH–] = Kw=10-7 x 10-7=10-14mol2dm-6.
Taking logarithm of both sides
log ([H+] [OH–]) = logKw
log [H+] + log[OH–] =logKw
Subtracting both sides
-(log[H+] + [OH–]) = -logKw
-log [H+] – log[OH–] = -logKw
-log [H+] + (-log [OH–]) = -logKw
pH + pOH = PKw
pKw = -log10-14 = -(-14) = 14
Therefore, pH + pOH = 14.
- Find the hydrogen and hydroxide ion concentrations in
(a) 0.01moldm-3 tetraoxosulphate (vi) acid solution.
(b) 0.001moldm-3 potassium hydroxide solution.
(a). H2SO4(aq) 2H+(aq) + SO42-(aq)
From the equation, 1 moldm-3 H2SO4 ionizes to give 2moldm-3 H+
Therefore, 0.01moldm-3 H2SO4 would ionize to give (2×0.01) moldm-3 H+
[H+] = 2×10-2moldm-3
[H+] [OH–] = 10-14
(2×10-2) [OH–] = 10-14
[OH–] = 10-14
[OH–] = 0.5x (10-14- -2)
[OH–] =0.5 x10-14+2
(b). KOH(aq) K+(aq) + OH–(aq)
From the equation,
1moldm-3 of KOH ionizes to give 1moldm-3 of OH–
10-3moldm-3 of KOH would ionize to give 10-3moldm-3 of OH‑
[H+] (10-3) = 10-14.
[H+] = 10-14
[H+] = 10-14+3
[H+] = 10-11moldm-3
- A glass cup of orange juice is found to have a POH of 11.40. Calculate the concentration of the hydrogen ions in the juice.
pH + pOH = 14.
pH = 14 – 11.4.
pH = 2.6.
pH = -log [H+]
2.6 =-log [H+].
[H+] = Antilog (-2.6)
[H+] = 0.0025moldm-3
[H+] = 2.5×10-3moldm-3.
Measuring pH of a solution.
We use pH meter and a universal indicator to detect PH of a solution.
Universal indicator is a mixture of indicator and can change to several colours corresponding to a particular PH and compared with the standard colour provided by the manufacturer of the universal indicator. Universal indicator measures PH between 3 and 11.
Put 10cm3 of test solution in a test tube, add 2 drops of universal indicator and compare with the colour chart or place 2 drops of test solution on universal indicator paper and compare the colour with the chart.
- Define the term pH.
- What is the pH of a solution having hydrogen ion concentration of 6x 10-9
- Give the chemical formula of the following acids (a) Tetraoxosulphate (vi) acid
(b) Trioxonitrate (v) acid (c) Oxochlorate (i) acid
- What is the IUPAC nomenclature of the following (a) HNO2 (b) HOBr (c) H3PO4 (d) H2S
- Determine the oxidation number of Cl and C in each of the following (a) KClO3
(b) HOCl (c) H2CO3 (d) CO2
- Mention the laboratory apparatus that are used in for an acid-base titration
What can be used to determine the acidity or alkalinity of a solution?
New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary School by O. S. Ababio, pp97-99, 102-107
- The following acids are monobasic except (a) HNO2 (b) HBr (c) HOCl (d) H2SO3
- Which of the following ions is acidic? (a) K+ (b) NO3– (c) S2- (d) H3O+.
- The number of hydroxonium ions produced by one molecule of an acid in aqueous solution is it (a) acidity (b) basicity (c) concentration (d) pH.
- The basicity of ethanoic acid CH3COOH is: (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
- A solution with pH 7 is (a) Acidic (b) dilute (c) neutral (d) saturated
- 1. What is (i) an acid (ii) basicity of an acid?
- What is the basicity of tetraoxophosphate (V) acid.
- The concentrations of H+ in two solutions are (a) 1 x10-4moldm-3and (b) 5 x 10-9moldm-3 . What is the PH of each solution?
Related Lesson Notes:
Lesson Note on Chemistry for SS1 Second Term
WEEK 2 TOPIC: Bases – Properties, Preparation. Salts: Classification, Methods of preparation, Types and Characteristics
Lesson Note On Bases: Properties, Preparation. Salts: Classification, Methods of preparation, Types and Characteristics
- Efflorescence, deliquescence and hygroscopic
BASES AND ALKALIS
A base is a substance which will neutralize an acid to yield a salt and water only. Most oxide and hydroxide of metals are bases e.g. Na2O, K2O, MgO, NaOH, KOH e.t.c.
An alkalis is a basic hydroxide which is soluble in water NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2. A basic oxide (or hydroxide) is a metallic oxide (or hydroxide) which contains ions (O2‑ or OH‑) and will react with an acid to form a salt and water only.
Note: An exception to this definition is the reaction of lead (IV) oxide with hydrochloric acid to produce lead (ii) chloride (a salt), water and chlorine gas.
PbO2(s) + 4HCl (aq) PbCl2 (aq) + 2H2O (l) + Cl2 (g)
From the equation above, PbO2 is not a base. The nature of the hydroxides of the metals varies according to the position of the metal in the electrochemical series, as illustrated below.
|Metal||Solubility||Decomposition by heat.|
|The hydroxides of these metals are soluble in water and are alkalis.||Hydroxide of sodium and potassium can
not be decomposed by heat.
|Mg, Al, Zn
Fe, Pb, Cu
|These metals form hydroxides which are insoluble in water. They are amphoteric except the three hydroxides of Magnesium, iron, and copper.||Decomposed on heating to form oxide and water.|
|Hg, Ag, Au.||Hydroxides of these metals do not exist.|
STRENGTH OF BASE
Like an acid, we have strength of a base. The strength of a base can either be weak or strong.
Weak base: Weak base are base that ionizes slightly in aqueous solution to produce positively charged metallic ion and negatively charged hydroxide ion e.g. CaO, NH3.
NH3 (g) + H2O (l) NH4+(aq) OH–(aq)
Strong bases: Strong base are base that ionizes completely in aqueous solution to produce positively charged metallic ion and negatively charged hydroxide ion e.g. Na2O, K2O.
Na2O(s) + H2O (l) 2NaOH(aq)
K2O(s) + H2O (l) 2KOH(aq)
NaOH (aq) Na+(aq) + OH–(aq)
KOH (aq) K+(aq) + OH–(aq)
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALIS
- Alkalis have a bitter taste.
- Alkalis are soapy to the touch.
- Alkalis turn red litmus blue.
- Concentrated form of the caustic alkalis of NaOH and KOH are corrosive.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALIS
- Reaction with acid: All base react with acid to form salt and water only.
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
MgO(s) + 2HNO3(aq) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l)
- Displacement of volatile ammonia from ammonium salt by a non volatile alkali: if an ammonium salt is warmed with an alkali (in the presence of water) ammonia gas is liberated
NaOH (aq) + NH4Cl (aq) NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) + NH3(g)
Ca (OH)2(aq) + (NH4)2SO4(aq) CaSO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2NH3(g)
USES OF ALKALIS/BASE
|NaOH||Used in the manufacture of soap, Na salts and plastic
Used in petrol refining.
|KOH||Used in the manufacture of liquid soap
Used in dyeing and electroplating.
|Ca(OH)2||Used in manufacture of mortar, cement and plaster
Used in dissolving acidic soil.
|Mg(OH)2||Used in the manufacture of toothpaste
Used as a laxative.
|Aqueous NH3||Used for bleaching cloth
Used as detergent.
- Define alkali giving examples
- State three physical properties of alkalis
- Using balanced equations, state two chemical properties of bases
- State the uses of bases
Neutralization reaction can be defined in three major ways.
- In terms of acid and the base present.
- In terms of H+ ion and OH– present in the acid and base.
- In terms of oxonium ions (H3O+) and hydroxide ion (OH–).
Neutralization is the process whereby an acid react completely with an alkalis/bases to form salt and water.
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
Neutralization is the combination of hydrogen ion (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH–) to form water molecules. A salt is also form at the same time.
H+(aq) + OH– H2O(l)
Neutralization can also be defined as the combination of oxonium ions (H3O+) and hydroxide ions (OH–) to form water molecule. A salt is also formed at the same time.
H3OCl(aq) + KOH(aq) KCl(aq) + H2O(l)
(H3O)2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + 4H2O(l)
H3O+(aq) + OH–(aq) 2H2O(l)
In aqueous solution, the hydrogen ion become associated with a water molecule to form oxonium ion (H3O+).This is an example of a coordinate covalent combination.
H+ + H2O H3O+
During neutralization, oxonium ion H3O+ behaves as hydrogen ion and thus reacts with hydroxide ion (OH–) to form water molecules.
- Define the term neutralization.
- Write TWO balanced equations to show neutralization reactions.
A salt is referred to as the compound formed when all or part of the ionisable hydrogen ion in an acid is replaced by a metallic or ammonium ion e.g.
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
H2SO4(aq) + KOH(aq) → KHSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
TYPES OF SALTS
There are five main types of salts namely:
- Normal salt.
- Acid salts
- Basic salts
- Double salts.
- Complex salts.
- Normal salts: are the salts formed when all the replaceable hydrogen ion in the acid has been completely replaced by a metal ion e.g. NaCl, K2SO4, Na3PO4, NaNO3 etc. Normal salts are neutral to litmus
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
H2SO4(aq) + KOH(aq) K2SO4(aq) + H2O(aq)
- Acid salts: Acid salts are formed when the replaceable hydrogen ion in the acids are only partially replaced by a metal e.g. NaHSO4, Na2HPO4, NaH2PO4, NaHCO3. They can be produce from acids which contain more than one replaceable hydrogen ion. Acids with two replaceable hydrogen ions can form only one acid salt while acid with three replaceable hydrogen ions can form two different acid salts
H2SO4(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaHSO4(aq) + H2O(l)
2H3PO4(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) NaH2PO4(aq) + Na2HPO4(aq) +3H2O(l)
Acid salts turn blue litmus red. Acid salts can be converted to normal salt if the remaining replaceable hydrogen ions in the acid salt are replaced in with metallic ions.
KHSO4(aq) + KOH(aq) K2SO4(aq) + H2O(l)
- Basic salts: Basic salts are formed when only part of the hydroxide ions of a base are replaced by the negative ions from an acid. It can occur when there is insufficient supply of acid for complete neutralization of the base e.g Zn(OH)Cl , Mg(OH)Cl, Mg(OH)NO3, Bi(OH)2NO3 e. t .c.
Zn(OH)2(aq) + HCl(aq) Zn(OH)Cl(aq) + H2O(l)
Because of the presence of hydroxide ion in the salt, it has basic properties. Basic salts turn red litmus blue. Basic salts react with excess acid to form a normal salt and water only.
Mg(OH)NO3(aq) + HNO3(aq) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l)
- Double salts: Double salts are salt which ionize to produce three different types of ions in solution. Usually two of these are positively charged (metallic or NH4+ ion) while the other is negatively charged e.g. (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2.6H2O, KAl(SO4)2.12H2O, KCr(SO4)2.12H2O.
(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2.6H2O: Ammonium iron (II) tetraoxosulphate (VI) hexahydrate.
KAl (SO4)2.12H2O: Aluminium Potassium tetraoxosulphate (V) dodecahydrate (Potash alum).
KCr (SO4)2.12H2O: Chromium (III) Potassium tetraoxosulphate (VI) dodecahydrate (Chrome alum).
- Complex salts: Complex salts contains complex ion i.e ion consisting of a charged group of atom e.g. Na2Zn(OH)4, K4Fe(CN)6, NaAl(OH)4.
Na2Zn(OH)4: Sodium tetrahydroxozincate (ii)
K4Fe(CN)6 : Potassium hexacyanoferrate (iii)
NaAl(OH)4: Sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate (iii)
Na2Zn(OH)4 2Na+ + [Zn(OH)4]2-
K4Fe(CN)6 4K+ + [Fe(CN)6]4-.
HYDROLYSIS OF SALT
Some salts undergoes hydrolysis in water to give an acidic or alkaline medium (solution) e.g. Na2CO3, NaHCO3, AlCl3, Na2S, NH4Cl, CH3COONa e.t.c.
Na2CO3 + H2O NaOH + H2CO3.
AlCl3 + H2O Al (OH)3 + HCl.
Na2S + H2O NaOH + H2S
Hydrolysis of salt occurs when a salt react with water e.g salt of strong acid and weak base gives acidic solution. The change in PH of solution is due to hydrolysis.
USES OF SALTS
- NH4Cl is used as an electrolyte in dry cell (Leclanche cell)
- CaCO3 is used as medicine to neutralise acidity in the stomach
- CaCl2 is used as antifreeze while fused CaCl2 is used as a drying agent and also in dessicator.
- CaSO4 is used for making plaster of Paris.
- CuSO4 is used in dyeing and calico printing.
- MgSO4 is used as a laxative.
- KNO3 is used for making gunpowder, matches and soil fertilizer.
- NaCl is used for preserving food and in glazing pottery.
- ZnCl2 is used in petroleum refining
- Define salt?
- List the five main types of salts giving two examples each
- Name four salts and state the use of each of them
|S/NO||SOLUBLE SALTS||INSOLUBLE SALTS|
|1.||All Na+, K+ and NH4+ salt|
|2.||All trioxonitrate (v)|
|3.||All chloride except||PbCl2, HgCl2 and AgCl are soluble in hot water.|
|4.||Trioxocarbonate (iv) of Na+, K+ and NH4+||All other trioxocarbonate (iv).|
|5.||Trioxosulphate (vi) of Na+, K+, NH4+ & Cu2+||All other trioxosulphate (IV)|
|6.||Sulphide of Na+, K+ and NH4+||All other sulphide.|
|7.||All tetraoxosulphate (vi) except||PbSO4, BaSO4 and CaSO4 are slightly soluble in H2O|
|8.||All hydrogen trioxocarbonate (iv)|
|S/NO||SOLUBLE BASE/ALKALIS||INSOLUBLE BASE/ALKALIS|
|1.||K2O, Na2O are very soluble
MgO, CaO are slightly soluble
|Other oxide are insoluble|
|2.||NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2 are very soluble
Mg (OH)2 is slightly soluble.
|Other hydroxides are insoluble.|
METHOD OF PREPARATION OF SALTS
The method of preparing a particular salt depends on its:
- Solubility in water
- Stability to heat.
It is necessary, therefore, for us to become familiar with the simple rules of solubility indicated above. Knowing the solubility of the salt enables us to determine which method to be used.
Soluble salts can be prepared by the following method:
- Neutralization of an acid by an alkali
- Action of dilute acid on a metal.
- Action of dilute acid on an insoluble base.
- Action of dilute acid on trioxocarbonate (IV).
RECOVERING SOLUBLE SALTS FROM SOLUTION
This can be done by:
- Heating to dryness: This is used to prepare soluble salts which are not destroyed or decomposed by heat e.g. most chlorides such as NaCl, ZnCl2, FeCl2 and FeCl3 are recovered by heating.
- Crystallization: This is used to prepare salt which are easily decomposed or destroyed by dry heating. All trioxonitrate (V) and tetraoxosulphate (VI) are recovered by crystallization.
Insoluble salts can be prepared by the following method:
- Double decomposition or precipitation.
Pb (NO3)2(aq) + 2NaCl (aq) 2NaNO3 (aq) + PbCl2(s)
AgNO3 (aq) + NH4Cl (aq) NH4NO3 (aq) + AgCl(s)
- Direct combination of 2 elements.
Fe(s) + S(s) FeS(s)
2Fe(s) + 3Cl2(g) 2FeCl3(s)
ANHYDROUS AND HYDRATED SALT
Anhydrous salts: are salts which do not contain water and cannot be crystallized out from aqueous solution.
Hydrated salts/salts with water of crystallization: are salts which combine chemically with water. The water molecule is loosely held to the salt molecule and when heated, such salt lose their water of crystallization. The water attached is known as water of crystallization e.g
Cu(NO3)2.3H2O: Copper (ii) trioxonitrate (v) trihydrate.
MgSO4.7H2O: Magnesium tetraoxosulphate (vi) heptahydrate.
FeSO4.7H2O: Iron (ii) tetraoxosulphate (vi) heptahydrate.
|Salts without water of crystallization||Salts with water of crystallization|
Calculation of water of crystallization
14g of hydrated H2C2O4.xH2O was heated to give an anhydrous salt weighing 9.99g.
(a). Calculate the value of x.
(b). Give the formula of the hydrated salt.
(c). Calculate the % of water of crystallization.
(a). Mass of hydrated salt = Molar mass of hydrated salt
Mass of water molecule Molar mass of water molecule
14 = (90+18x)
14 = (90 +18x)
14(18x) = 4.01 (90 + 18x)
252x = 360.9 + 72.18x
252x – 72.18x = 360.9
179.82x = 360.9
x = 360.9/179.82
x = 2.007
x = 2 to the nearest whole number.
(b) Formula of hydrated salt = H2C204.2H20.
(c) To calculate the % of water of crystallization:
% of water of crystallization = Mass of water x 100%
= 36 x 100
(90 + 36)
= 36 x 100
EFFLORESCENCE, DELIQUESCENCE AND HYGROSCOPIC
When certain compound is exposed to the air, they either lose their water of crystallization or they absorb moisture from their surroundings. The term efflorescent, deliquescent and hygroscopic are used to describe such compound.
EFFLORESCENTS: are substances which on exposure to air, lose some or all of their water of crystallization. The phenomenon or process is efflorescence. There is loss of weight or mass of the substances.
e.g Na2CO3.10H2O Na2CO3.H2O + 9H2O
Other examples are Na2SO4.10H2O, MgSO4.7H2O and CuSO4.5H2O e.t.c
DELIQUESCENTS: are substances that absorb so much water from air and form a solution e.g. NaOH, CaCl2, FeCl3, MgCl2, KOH and P4O10. There is a gain in weight.
HYGROSCOPIC: are substances which absorb moisture on exposure to the atmosphere without forming a solution. If they are solids, no solution will be formed but if a liquid absorb water, it gets diluted. There is little or no difference in mass e.g Conc. H2SO4, NaNO3, CuO, CaO and anhydrous Na2CO3.
These are substances which have high affinity for water or moisture. They are either deliquescent or hygroscopic. They remove water molecules to effect physical change. Drying agents are different from dehydrating agents which removes elements of water i.e hydrogen and oxygen atoms or intra-molecular water.
Drying agents which react with gases are not used to dry the gas e.g conc. H2SO4 is not used to dry NH3 and H2S gas.
NH3(g) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)
H2S(g) + H2SO4(aq) 2H2O(l) + SO2(g) + S(s)
|Conc. H2SO4||All gases except NH3 & H2S|
|Fused CaCl2||All gases except NH3|
|CaO or quicklime||For ammonia|
|P2O5||All gases except ammonia|
|Silica gel||All gases|
Salts are usually dried in dessicator.
- Using balanced equations, state two methods of preparing: (a) Soluble salt (b) insoluble salt
- How can soluble salts be recovered from their solution?
- Calculate the percentage of water in sodium trioxocarbonate (iv) heptahydrate
- What is the number of molecules in 6.4g of sulphur (iv) oxide (NA=6.0X1023/mol)
- Write an equation to show the acid formed when phosphorus (v) oxide is dissolved in cold water and name the acid formed
- Differentiate between a base and an alkali
- Define: Efflorescence, Deliquescence and Hygroscopy
New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools by O.Y Ababio pages 100-101 and 108-115.
- The two types of bonds that exist in H3O+ are a. covalent and ionic b. co-ordinate covalent and covalent c. metallic and ionic d. polar covalent and metallic
- How many moles of hydrogen ions are there in 50cm3 of 0.20moldm-3 H2SO4?
- 0.01 b 0.02 c 0.10 d 0.20
- Which of these is not recovered through dry heating (evaporation)?
- NaClO3 b. NH4NO3 c. CuHSO4 d. NaHCO3.
- Which pH value indicates a basic solution? a. -1 b.3 c.9 d.7
- All common gases are dried using P2O5 except a. NO2 b. NH3 c. SO2 d. H2S
- Give the reason for each of the following:
- Sodium salts cannot be prepared by double decomposition
- Na2CO3(aq) which is a salt solution, turns red litmus blue.
- 1.34g of hydrated Na2SO4 was heated to give an anhydrous salt weighing
- Calculate the number of molecules of water of crystallization
- Give the formula of the hydrated salt [Na=23, S=32, O=16, H=1].
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