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Basic Science Scheme of Work for JSS2 First Term



Week 9: BODY IMAGE 1
Week 10: BODY IMAGE 2

Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS2 First Term



Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

What is an Habitat?

A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by human, a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism. A place where a living thing lives is its habitat. It is a place where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. It is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population.

Living place of plants and animals is called Habitat. Habitat can be big or small example forest or a leaf

Different animals and plants require different living conditions to survive examples. To survive, whales need sea water whereas to survive, goldfish need fresh water. Some animals can survive in more than  one habitat and some can survive in one.

Introduction to different habitats

All animals and plants are adapted to the conditions of the habitats in which they live. Example: A rattlesnake could not live in arctic for very long time whereas a Walrus could not live in dessert.

Different types of Habitats

1) Forest Habitat

2) Desert Habitat

3) Water Habitat{Aquatic Habitat}

4) Grassland Habitat

5) Tundra Habitat

Details of Different Types of Habitats

1.Forest Habitat : It is a type of habitat which covers a large area where many trees, plants and animals live.The plants in forests provide shade and protection to many different types of animals

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

Different types of forest are

  1. a) Deciduous Forest:   These are forest in cool rainy areas. They can be found in middle of Europe or Eastern half of North America. Animals living in this habitat must adjust to cold winters and hot summers. The trees in the forest provides shelter to them

Examples of animals living in this habitat are

Black bear, Grey squirrel, Turkey, Rat snake

  1. b) Coniferous forest: This habitat is found in Europe, The Northern coniferous forests are called Taiga. This is largest type of habitat in world. It has fewer animals as comparison to in deciduous forest cold weather makes life very difficult in these forests.

Examples of animals living in this habitat: Lynx, Moose, Squirrel, Loon, Hawk owl


  1. c) Rain Forest: Tropical rain forest occurs in regions that are near to equator. In these the climate is very warm with plenty of rainfall. Most of the animals live on trees.

2.Desert Habitat:

Deserts  are characterized by dry conditions and a wide temperature range. These are defined as regions that has a less than 254 mm of annual rainfall or precipitation.

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

Types of Deserts                                

a.Hot and dry Dessert: Most hot and dry deserts are near the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn.

b.Cold Deserts: These are near the Arctic part of world. Cold Deserts have animals like Kangaroo rats, Antelope, Jack Rabbits.

Just as some animals prefer to live on land some need water habitat to survive.


3.Aquatic habitat{Water Habitat}
It refers to the region covered with water where plants and animals survive. Aquatic habitat is further divided into freshwater habitat, marine habitat and coastal habitat. Water is the medium for the organisms living in aquatic habitats.

a)Freshwater habitat:  These are the water bodies filled with fresh water. These include rivers, lakes, ponds, streams etc. Water present has very low concentration of salts. Plants growing in water are called as hydrophytes.

b) Marine habitat: Ocean and seas are termed to be marine habitat. These are full with life. Different varieties of organisms exist in marine habitat. Organisms like, corals, shelled animals, sponges, jelly fish, sharks and many others are found in this habitat.

c) Coastal habitat or estuaries: This is the region represented by the place where land meets the sea. Estuaries are formed when the saltwater mixes with freshwater. These habitats are unique Special type of trees called as mangroves are found in this region. Animals are also well adapted to live in these regions.
Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

The two different types of grasslands are :

a.Temperature grasslands: They are farther from the equator and have both cold winters and hot summers

b.Tropical grasslands: These are closest to the equator and all hot all the year

Since Grassland lack in trees and heavy bushes Hence grasslands are homes to large herds of the grazing animals such as Bison, Giraffe ,Lion, Zebra, Ostrich

5.Tundra Habitat: The 2 major characteristics of tundra are Arctic tundra, Alpine tundra. These are located at high altitudes on mountains around the world. About one fifth of the earth ‘s land is Tundra. The Arctic tundra is frozen for much of the year. The ground  is permanently frozen 10 feet 3 inches down so the trees cannot grow there.

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

Animals living in tundra are Lions , Snow birds, Mosquitoes, Flies, Polar bear, Wolves, Flat fish.. Animals are also well adapted to live in these regions.


1.Habitat is a place where ——– a.plants live b.Animals live c.Man and Animals live d.Plants and Animals live

2.Which of the following is not  an aquatic animals?a.Fish  b.Water lilies  c.Crocodile  d.Birds


1.What is an Habitat?

2.State 5 types of Habitat.

3.Give 5 examples of animals found in each of  Habitat.

4. Describe the characteristics of each of this Habitat.


What are Arboreal Animals? Give Examples.

Related Lesson Notes:

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science (Second Term)

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science (Third Term)

Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS2 First Term



Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat.

The ability of living organisms to adjust themselves to the surroundings is called as adaptation. Adaptations are the changes in structure or behaviour of an organism that will allow the organism to survive in that habitat. Plants and animals make some natural adjustments in some features to fit themselves into their environment. Different living organisms adapt themselves to their habitats in different ways. Adaptations can be brought about by changes in the body, changes in the behaviour and changes in location.

Adaptation of animals in aquatic habitat

Animals which live in aquatic habitat are adapted by structural modification of the structures of their body and also by developing the new structures. Aquatic animals are adapted by modifying the structures present in their bodies which are known as the adaptational structures or adaptational features. The adaptational features of aquatic animals are as follows:
1- Body is stream-lined in shape which helps to minimize water resistance which makes them easy to live in water.
2-Respiratory organs are the gills in perfectly aquatic forms like fishes but in the air breathing forms nostrils are located near the top f the head to enable them t go to surface frequently to inhale air.
3-Locomotary organs are developed as the fins to swim in water easily. There are different types of fins like dorsal fin, ventral fin, caudal fin, pectoral fins and pelvic fins. All the fins help in swimming but the caudal fin helps them to balance the body in water. Sme aquatic forms like amphibians have the thin fold f skin in between the digits f the hind limbs which are called web. Web helps to increase the surface area for swimming. Aquatic animals like turtles have fin like organs called paddles for swimming and whales have the flippers as the swimming organ.
4- Body is covered by scales which make the body soft and slippery so as to escape from the enemies and also helps them to prtect the internal soft organs of the body.
5- Some fishes have got the hydrostatic organ called air bladder for adjusting them in the different  depths of water according to their need by increasing the amount of gas or by decreasing the amount of gas in side the air bladder.

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science


Plant Adaptations

Plants have adaptations to help them survive (live and grow) in different areas. Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat. These adaptations might make it very difficult for the plant to survive in a different place. This explains why certain plants are found in one area, but not in another. For example, you wouldn’t see a cactus living in the Arctic. Nor would you see lots of really tall trees living in grasslands.


Plant Adaptations in Water

  • underwater leaves and stems are flexible to move with water currents
  • some plants have air spaces in their stems to help hold the plant up in the water
  • submerged plants lack strong water transport system (in stems); instead water, nutrients, and dissolved gases are absorbed through the leaves directly from the water.
  • roots and root hairs reduced or absent; roots only needed for anchorage, not for absorption of nutrients and water
  • some plants have leaves that float atop the water, exposing themselves to the sunlight
  • in floating plants chlorophyll is restricted to upper surface of leaves (part that the sunlight will hit) and the upper surface is waxy to repel water
  • Some plants produce seeds that can float

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

The Desert
The desert is very dry and often hot.  Annual rainfall averages less than 10 inches per year, and that rain often comes all at the same time.  The rest of the year is very dry.  There is a lot of direct sunlight shining on the plants.  The soil is often sandy or rocky and unable to hold much water.  Winds are often strong, and dry out plants.  Plants are exposed to extreme temperatures and drought conditions.  Plants must cope with extensive water loss.

Desert Plant Adaptations

  • Some plants, called succulents, store water in their stems or leaves;
  • Some plants have no leaves or small seasonal leaves that only grow after it rains.  The lack of leaves helps reduce water loss during photosynthesis.  Leafless plants conduct photosynthesis in their green stems.
  • Long root systems spread out wide or go deep into the ground to absorb water;
  • Some plants have a short life cycle, germinating in response to rain, growing, flowering, and dying within one year.  These plants can evade drought.
  • Leaves with hair help shade the plant, reducing water loss.  Other plants have leaves that turn throughout the day to expose a minimum surface area to the heat.
  • Spines to discourage animals from eating plants for water;
  • Waxy coating on stems and leaves help reduce water loss.
  • Flowers that open at night lure pollinators who are more likely to be active during the cooler night.

Slower growing requires less energy.  The plants don’t have to make as much food and therefore do not lose as much water.

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

The Temperate Grasslands
The temperate grasslands, also called prairie, feature hot summers and cold winters.  Rainfall is uncertain and drought is common.  The temperate grasslands usually receive about 10 to 30 inches of precipitation per year.  The soil is extremely rich in organic material due to the fact that the above-ground portions of grasses die off annually, enriching the soil.  The area is well-suited to agriculture, and few original prairies survive today.

Temperate Grassland (Prairie) Plant Adaptations

  • During a fire, while above-ground portions of grasses may perish, the root portions survive to sprout again
  • Some prairie trees have thick bark to resist fire
  • Prairie shrubs readily resprout after fire
  • Roots of prairie grasses extend deep into the ground to absorb as much moisture as they can
  • Extensive root systems prevent grazing animals from pulling roots out of the ground
  • Prairie grasses have narrow leaves which lose less water than broad leaves
  • Grasses grow from near their base, not from tip, thus are not permanently damaged from grazing animals or fire
  • Many grasses take advantage of exposed, windy conditions and are wind pollinated

Soft stems enable prairie grasses to bend in the wind

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

Soft stems enable prairie grasses to bend in the wind.  Narrow leaves minimize water loss. Many grasses are wind pollinated and are well-suited to the exposed, windy conditions of the grasslands.


All animals adapt to survive in the wild, and frogs are no exception. Here is a list of the top ten physical adaptations that enable frogs to thrive in wetlands.

  1. Legs: Frogs have very powerful back legs and webbed feet that help them swim and jump.

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

  1. Skin: Frog skin is often camouflaged to hide from predators. Some frogs can change the colour of their skin depending on its surroundings.
  2. Skin: Some frogs secrete poison through their skin. Many of the more easily visible, brightly colored tropical frogs are colored in this way to warn predators that they are poisonous.
  3. Croaks: Frogs attract each other for mating with their croak. Each frog species has a distinct croak. They have vocal sacs, which fill with air, and can amplify the sound up to a mile away.
  4. Tongue: When a frog spots a tasty meal, it flicks out its long, sticky tongue. The tongue wraps around the meal/insect and pulls it back into the frog’s mouth. Unlike humans, a frog’s tongue is not attached to the back of its mouth. Instead it is attached to the front, enabling the frog to stick its tongue out much further.

8. Teeth: Frogs do have teeth, but they are small and not good for chewing. Instead,

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science

The ability of an organism to make small adjustments or changes in the body in a short period of time to adjust itself to the surrounding atmosphere is called acclimatisation. People who visit mountain ranges suffer from altitude sickness due to poor oxygen content in the atmosphere at such heights. Their body gets adjusted or acclimatised to changes in the surroundings.

Components of a habitat
The components in a habitat are broadly classified into two types, namely biotic and abiotic components. Biotic components interact with abiotic components to obtain all the necessary conditions.

Biotic components include all the livings organisms in a habitat, i.e. plants, animals and microorganisms.

Abiotic components include all the non-living things in a habitat, i.e. air, soil, water, sunlight and temperature. The favourable conditions for survival of living organisms are provided by abiotic components.

  1. a) Air: Air is essential for all the living organisms on earth. Plants and animals take in oxygen from the air during respiration. Plants take in carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis. Air also provides nitrogen which is fixed to the plants for utilisation. Air is required by organisms to cool their body. Winds help in generating energy. Winds also help in carrying the seeds for distant places.b) Soil: Soil is the topmost layer of the earth. Soil is rich in minerals and microorganisms which help in different ways for plant growth. Soil also possess certain spaces which lodge water particles. This water lodged in the spaces is used by plants by the process of absorption.c) Water: Three-fourths of our earth is covered with water. Water is essential for life. Water forms a medium for many metabolic reactions taking place inside the body. Water can be fresh water or marine water. Animals living in water are called as aquatic organisms. Plants specially living in water are called as hydrophytes. Humidity and rain are also the forms of water which help the living organisms.

    d) Sunlight: Sun is the ultimate source of energy for all the living organisms on earth. Plants depend on sunlight for synthesising their food by the process of photosynthesis. Animals depend on plants for their food i.e. indirectly they depend on sunlight.

    e) Temperature:Temperature at a place depends on the sunlight available at the particular place. Temperature also influences the humidity of that particular place. Areas may be too hot, moderate or too cool. Some animals hibernate during cool winter and some of them aestivate during hot summer.


1.The two factors that affect living organisms are a.Abiotic and amniotic factors  b.Abiotic and Non-abiotic factors  c.Abiotic abd Biotic factors   d.Biotic and biological factors.

2,.Features that help organism to survive in a particular habitat is called ——–a.Homes   b.Adaptation c.Favourites  d.Permanent home.


Define the following

1.Biotic factors  ii.Abiotic factors

2.Give Examples


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