Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science (Second Term)
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Basic Science Scheme of Work for JSS2 Second Term
WEEK 1. Revision of first term’s work
WEEK 2. Changes in living things
WEEK 3. Changes in non living things
WEEK 4. The human body (skeletal system and movement)
WEEK 5. Respiratory system
WEEK 6. Circulatory system
WEEK 7. Digestive system
WEEK 8. Reproductive system
WEEK 9. Excretory system
WEEK 10. Revision
WEEK 11. Examination
Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS2 Second Term
WEEK 1: Revision of first term’s work
Related Lesson Notes:
Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science (First Term)
Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science (Third Term)
Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS2 Second Term
WEEK 2 TOPIC: Changes in living things
LESSON NOTE ON Changes in living things
CONTENT: 1. Definition of growth and development
- Growth and developmental changes (Childhood and infancy, adolescence,
- Characteristic features of stages of development
- Classifying growth and developmental changes(Temporary and permanent
SUB-TOPIC 1: Definition of growth and development
Growth is the permanent increase in size of an organism due to increase in number of cells. Growth is brought about by cell division and depends on the type of food taken.
Development is a series of orderly changes by which a living thing comes into maturity .It is a series of changes that occur during growth .It is a gradual process leading to maturation of organs and behaviours of individual like social, emotional as well as skill acquisition.
Growth and developmental changes
The noticeable change in the body size over time is termed growth change. Growth change can be determined by measure of height and weight at time intervals while developmental changes can be observed by appearance of certain characteristics features and capabilities. Development leads to transition from one stage of life to another e.g a baby develops from infancy to childhood, then to adolescence and to adulthood. Developmental changes are progressive and move from simple to complex.
Characteristic features of developmental stages
The developmental changes are characterized by certain features which include the following:
- Infancy and childhood
Infancy is period of dramatic growth which last from birth to around two years. It is also a time when children form emotional attachments to their care givers e g mother. Childhood is the stage from birth to puberty. After infancy, children can walk, run and speak in simple sentences. Childhood is characterized by light body weight, small size, very rapid growth particularly in the first two years of life very active body and restlessness.
2 Puberty/Juvenile: This is the transition stage from childhood to adolescence. As children approach the ages of 9 and 10 years, they become more independent and might start noticing the physical changes of puberty. A major growth spurt can occur at this time as the body begins sexual development. This also can be a time of stress for children as peer pressure takes its toll. Body image along with emotional changes often causes children to feel less confident. Juveniles also start preparing for middle school by taking on more academic responsibilities and focusing on goal-setting and accomplishment
3 Adolescence: This is the stage between adulthood. From ages 12 to 18 years, children experience distinct mental and physical changes. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the beginning of a girl’s menstrual cycle typically occurs 2 years after the onset of puberty. The NIH reports that boys do not begin puberty with a distinct marker and tend to mature with adult genitalia about age 16 or 17 years. During this time of physical change, adolescents may become more self-centered. In middle to late adolescence, teen-agers are often characterized as becoming more comfortable with their body sexually and ready to have romantic friendships. Adolescent behavior often includes the teen-agers’ need to pull away from parents and authority figures to establish their own self-identity and make decisions on their own.
4 Adulthood: This is the stage of full maturity. It is often noted when a person is considered chronologically, legally and behaviorally ready to hold responsibilities such as operating a motor vehicle, voting, taking the vows of marriage, entering into a contract and serving in the armed forces. The process of becoming mature does not end with adolescence but continues throughout adulthood as psychological, safety and self-actualization needs are met. Adulthood is often divided into three categories: young adulthood, middle age and old age.
Classifying growth and developmental changes (Temporary and permanent changes)
These include growth of pimples in male and female at adolescence, malnutrition or kwashiorkor, fatness, enlargement of stomach after a meal or intake of water. These changes are usually due to food in-take. Other temporary changes are bedwetting, sweating and rise in body temperature .Temporary changes may naturally disappear after some time .They can also be corrected medically or by change in behavior
Permanent changes: These are changes that remain for life and are not reversible. Features that associated with each of the human developmental stages of childhood, adolescence and adulthood are permanent changes and remain with the individual throughout life.
Factors affecting growth and development
iii. Exercise and rest
- Love and care
Define growth and development.
List the human developmental stages.
List the factors affecting growth and development.
WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT: In STAN JSS 2 text book, write short notes on the factors affecting growth and development.
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