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This Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS2 (third term) covers weekly prepared lesson notes and each of them are rich in classwork, curriculum compliant and syllabus based.

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Basic Science Scheme of Work for JSS2 Third Term

WEEK 1. Reproductive Health

WEEK 2. Abstinence

WEEK 3. Chemicals

WEEK 4. Chemicals (Safety Measures)

WEEK 5. Drug Abuse

WEEK 6. Crude oil and Petrochemicals

WEEK 7 & 8. Family traits and Genetic Counseling

WEEK 9. Environmental Hazard

WEEK 10. Revision

REFERENCE

PRECIOUS SEED BASIC SCIENCE FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS BOOK 2

Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS2 Third Term

WEEK 1 TOPIC: Reproductive Health

LESSON NOTE ON Reproductive Health

GENETIC COUNSELLING

Genetic counseling may be described as the process through which individuals affected by, or at risk for a problem which may be genetic or hereditary, are informed of the consequences of the disorder, of the probability of suffering from or of transmitting it to their offspring, and of the potential means of treating or of avoiding the occurrence of the malformation or disease in question. ” Genetic ” does not necessarily mean ” hereditary “. The first term implies simply that the genetic material, on a chromosomal or a gene level, contains one or more mutations which are the cause of the disorder. Once a mutation is present in a patient, particularly if it is constitutional (and thus present in all cells), it can of course be transmitted and thus becomes a hereditary disorder.

Four aspects  involved in giving genetic counseling

  • Arriving at a specific diagnosis
  • Estimation of risks: to develop the disorder and/or to transmit it to offspring.
  • Practical aid: this includes, for example, recommending doctors for specialized examinations or health care professionals for speech or educational therapy. It often implies as well the coordination of prenatal and other diagnostic tests.
  • Supportive role

IMPORTANCE OF GENETIC COUNSELLING BEFORE MARRIAGE

  1. To ensure that there are no genetic anomalies in either partner, this would produce damaged offspring.
  2. Nowadays premarital testing is considered an important issue, as a result of the increasing in the number of children affected with genetic or blood transmitted diseases.
  3. Premarital screening mainly aimed at reducing the number of children with inherited diseases.
  4. If either/both have family history of a serious genetic condition
  5. If they are ‘carriers’ of the same faulty gene
  6. If they have exposure to some chemical or other environmental agent
  7. Any abnormalities in the chromosomes

EVALUATION

  1. What is genetic counseling?
  2. What are the four aspects involved in giving genetic counseling?

Breastfeeding  and its importance

  • There is an increased resistance to infections, and therefore fewer incidents of illness and hospitalization
  • Decreased risk of allergies and lactose intolerance
  • Breast milk is sterile
  • Baby experiences less nappy rash and thrush
  • Baby is less likely to develop allergies
  • Baby experiences fewer stomach upsets and constipation
  • Breastfed infants tend to have fewer cavities
  • Breastfeeding promotes the proper development of baby’s jaw and teeth.
  • Breastfed infants tend to have higher IQs due to good brain development early in life
  • Babies benefit emotionally, because they are held more
  • Breastfeeding promotes mother-baby bonding
  • In the long term, breastfed babies have a decreased risk of malnutrition, obesity and heart disease compared to formula fed babies.

MYTHS ABOUT BREASTFEEDING

  • If babies feed a lot, that means they aren’t getting enough milk.

Fact: Because breast milk is so easy to digest, babies generally get hungrier sooner than if they are formula-fed. It’s appropriate for your breastfeeding newborn baby to eat every two to three hours.

  • Giving the breast a nursing “rest” can help ensure more milk.

Fact: The more you nurse, the more milk you make. Breaking your regular nursing schedule to “rest” the breast actually may decrease your milk supply.

This myth got started, she says, because skipping a feeding or pumping during the day results in greater supply of milk at night. But by the next day you will have less milk if you skip a feeding. “The only way to ensure a steady supply is to keep expressing milk as regularly as you can. You should nurse at least nine to 10 times a day to ensure milk production.

  • Formula fed babies sleep better.

Fact: Research indicates that babies fed on formula do not sleep better, although they may sleep longer. “Because bottle milk doesn’t get digested as quickly, it may be a longer stretch between feedings so your baby may sleep longer.

Breastfed babies typically start sleeping longer at 4 weeks old and soon are sleeping the same amount of time as formula-fed babies.

  • Nursing babies shouldn’t take an occasional bottle or they may become confused and stop eating.

Fact: Babies suck on a nipple, but suckle at the breast. The difference between the two actions rarely will confuse your little one. If you think you need to supplement your baby’s feedings (particularly if you plan to return to work before you finish nursing), then you should introduce baby to a bottle between 2 to 6 weeks of age.

Use it for one or two feedings a day. Your baby will develop the skills necessary to bottle feed without losing the ability to feed at the breast. Use your own milk when trying the bottle, and hold your baby close to your body to cuddle. It’s the bonding time that matters almost as much as the actual feeding.

  • Breastfeeding changes the shape and size of your breast, or reduces sensitivity.

Fact: While pregnancy does somewhat alter the look and feel of your breasts, experts say breastfeeding does not cause any changes beyond that.

 

In fact, “breastfeeding can actually help protect your breasts. women who breastfeed have a reduced risk of breast cancer later in life.

  • Never wake a sleeping baby to breastfeed.

Fact: Most of the time your baby will wake you — and be ready to eat — every two-and-a-half to three hours. However, your baby may feed vigorously for two or three hours — known as “cluster feedings” — then sleep a longer than usual.

“It’s okay to let them sleep a little longer than usual, but you should never have more than one four-and-a-half-hour period of sleeping per day. If your baby is regularly sleeping through feeding time, wake baby when it’s time to eat. It’s important for your baby to feed on schedule, and you need to express milk on schedule to keep up a good supply.

  • Breastfeeding prevents you from getting pregnant.

Fact: Judging by the number of families with babies born 10 months apart, it’s clear that breastfeeding isn’t guaranteed birth control. However, experts do believe breastfeeding is 98% effective — similar to other forms of birth control. experts say hormones involved in breastfeeding prevent ovulation, thereby blocking your ability to conceive for up to 14 or 15 months following delivery.

EVALUATION

  1. State five importance of breast feeding
  2. What is breast feeding?

READING ASSIGNMENT

Precious seed BASIC SCIENCE FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS BOOK 2

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. What is genetic counseling?
  2. What are the four aspects involved in giving genetic counseling?
  3. State five importance of breast feeding
  4. What is breast feeding?
  5. State five importance of genetic counseling before marriage

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. Counseling may be described as the process through which individuals affected by, or at risk for a problem which may be genetic or hereditary, are informed of the consequences of the disorder, of the probability of suffering from or of transmitting it to their offspring. A. Genetic B. Sporadic C. Hereditary D. General
  2. Nowadays premarital——– is considered an important issue, as a result of the increasing in the number of children affected with genetic or blood transmitted diseases. A. testing B. exam C. submission D. counseling
  3. Breastfeeding ———–the proper development of baby’s jaw and teeth. A. promotes B. hinders C. inhibit D. negotiates
  4. Women who breastfeed have a ———risk of breast cancer later in life. A. reduced B. observed C. suspecting D. aggravated
  5. Similar to other forms of birth control, hormones involved in breastfeeding prevent ——– A. ovulation B. fertilization C. oval window D. pregnancy

THEORY

  1. State two myths about breast feeding
  2. State five importance of genetic counseling before marriage

Related Lesson Notes:

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science (First Term)

Lesson Note For JSS2 Basic Science (Second Term)

Lesson Note on Basic Science for JSS2 Third Term

WEEK 2 TOPIC: Abstinence

LESSON NOTE ON Abstinence

Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. Most frequently, the term refers to sexual abstinence, or abstinence from alcohol or food. The practice can arise from religious prohibitions and practical considerations. Abstinence may also refer to drugs. For example, one can abstain from smoking. Abstinence has diverse forms. Commonly it refers to a temporary or partial abstinence from food, as in fasting. Abstinence may be voluntary (when an individual chooses not to engage in sexual activity due to moral, religious, philosophical, etc. reasons), an involuntary result of social circumstances (when one

Types of abstinence

  1. Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
  2. Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes meat (including game, marine mammals and slaughter by-products), poultry, fowl, fish, shellfish and other sea creatures
  3. Smoking cessation is the action leading towards the discontinuation of the consumption of a smoked substance, mainly tobacco, but it may encompass cannabis and other substances as well.
  4. Teetotalism is the practice and promotion of complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages.
  5. Sexual abstinence or sexual restraint is the practice of refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity for medical, psychological, legal, social, financial, philosophical, moral, or religious reasons.
  6. Religious orders Lifelong (or at least long-term) abstinence, often associated with philosophical or religious asceticism, is distinguished from chastity before marriage.

EVALUATION

  1. Define Abstinence
  2. Mention five types of abstinence

 

SKILLS AND BEHAVIOUR THAT PROMOTES ABSTINENCE

  1. Tangible rewards for verifiable abstinence. Students are better able to maintain desirable behaviors when they are rewarded daily or weekly rather than when they are asked to focus solely on the ultimate goal of long-term recovery.
  2. Incentives extend abstinence during treatment for addiction. Although the effectiveness of incentives tends to weaken after they are discontinued, some studies have found that benefits persist for 1 to 2 years.
  3. Motivational incentives can promote and reinforce multiple healthy behaviors. For example, such interventions have improved drug abusers’ adherence to HIV antiviral medication regimens and helped patients maintain regular exercise, job-hunting, and other activities that support a drug-free lifestyle.
  4. The longer students are continuously abstinent, the greater their chances of maintaining future abstinence.

REASONS WHY YOUNG PEOPLE MUST ABSTAIN FROM PRE-MARITAL SEX

  1. It breaks God’s laws and dishonors Him— a concordance for the word “fornication.”
  2. It presents huge physical risk—diseases and illness are rampant among those who engage in this lifestyle.
  3. It presents huge emotional risk—a physical and emotional bond without a spiritual             commitment is never a winning experience.
  4. It presents huge spiritual risk—grieving the Holy Spirit and offending a holy God means we forfeit God’s best. We never win by dishonoring God.
  5. It is awkward, guilt ridden, unfulfilling, and not representative of God’s original intent— hence a culture that continually seeks fulfillment with new partners and relationships.
  6. It is disappointing at the physical, emotional, and spiritual levels—the only physical intimacy that exceeds expectations is that founded on long-term commitment and marital growth.
  7. It creates a spiritual/emotional bond without commitment—this only breeds resentment, bitterness, and the feeling of being used. It says something like this, “I don’t love you enough to commit to you, but I love me enough to use you.”
  8. It destroys trust—the best way to have trust in a marriage is to stay pure before you get married. Learning to be committed to Christ (in purity) is the best way to learn to be committed to a spouse.
  9. It creates resentment and frustration—it was designed to happen within a committed marriage of selfless love. Outside of that, fornication just breaks the heart and wounds the soul.
  10. It leaves you empty and searching for real love—physical intimacy doesn’t create a loving, committed relationship, it’s the  fruit of one.
  11. It devalues the future intimacy of your marriage—intimacy is “just the two of us.” Premarital relationships destroy that before it even happens.
  12. It prevents the greatest intimacy in marriage—the purest and most fulfilling marital relationship is that which is forever untouched by previous relationships. (If you have failed morally, don’t lose hope. Claim God’s grace, and begin protecting your future marriage today by abstaining from further fornication.) Jesus doesn’t shame you, but He would say, “Go and sin no more.”
  13. It sets a person on a path of unfulfilling sexual experiences—fornication is a downward spiral of perpetually unfulfilling relationships.
  14. It attempts to shortcut God’s plan for marriage and family—it turns God’s great gift of family and love into a cheap thrill and self-centered pleasure quest.
  15. It prevents you from having the most fulfilling sexual relationship—while a person is sleeping around, they are NOT preparing for the wonderful lifetime relationship that God intended.
  16. It enlarges sexual desires and makes them insatiable—thinking with your hormones allows them to become an unruly taskmaster.
  17. It puts the flesh and hormones in control of your life—you are more than a chemical reaction that seeks gratification. Don’t allow your life to be directed by physical desires
  18. It creates children without strong homes— relationship is to create a family with a             foundation of commitment and lifetime love.
  19. It feeds the abortion industry—illicit relationship creates unwanted children which creates “the abortion industry.”
  20. It cannot be done safely—no matter what culture says—safe sex is one man, one woman, committed in marriage, for the rest of their lives.

EVALUATION

  1. Mention five skills and behaviour that promotes abstinence
  2. State seven reasons why young people must abstain from pre-marital sex.

 

REASONS WHY YOUNG PEOPLE ENGAGE IN PRE-MARITAL SEX

  1. Family characteristics.i.e educational status of the parents and their positions.
  2. Peer influence I.e. experience of pre-marital sex among the youth by sexual behaviour
  3. Smoking and alcohol consumption.
  4. Individual characteristics.i.e
  5. Socioeconomic development of the parents.
  6. Behaviour towards the virginity of male and female

 

FACTS AND MYTHS ABOUT SEXUAL ABSTINENCE

  1. Comprehensive sexuality education encourages youth to have sex.

FACT Research clearly demonstrates that comprehensive sexuality education programs can help young people delay sexual initiation.

  1. MYTH Comprehensive sexuality education disregards values and morals.

FACT Comprehensive sexuality education incorporates values and cultural sensitivity.

  1. MYTH Comprehensive sexuality education programs undermine parental/family

authority.

FACT Multiple polls indicate that an overwhelming majority of parents support the

provision of comprehensive sexuality education in schools.

  1. MYTH Comprehensive sexuality education teaches the mechanics of sex to young

children.

FACT Comprehensive sexuality education provides age- and developmentally     appropriate information and skills to help young people delay sexual initiation and to protect themselves when they do become sexually active.

  1. MYTH Comprehensive sexuality education programs do not promote abstinence.19

FACT Evaluation of 23 comprehensive sexuality education programs showed that were successful at helping young people to delay sexual initiation.

  1. MYTH Condoms are not effective.25

FACT According to the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV and very effective in preventing  most STIs, when used consistently and correctly.

  1. MYTH Abstinence-only-until-marriage programs work

FACT A five-year study mandated by the U.S. Congress determined that abstinence only-until-marriage programs were not effective.

  1. MYTH Comprehensive sexuality education programs do not promote abstinence

FACT Evaluation of 23 comprehensive sexuality education programs showed that were successful at helping young people to delay sexual initiation.

  1. MYTH Abstinence-only-until-marriage programs work.

FACT A five-year study mandated by the U.S. Congress determined that abstinence only- until-marriage programs were not effective.

 

READING ASSIGNMENT

Precious seed BASIC SCIENCE FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS BOOK 2 page 44-45

 

GENERAL EVALUATION

  1. Mention five skills and behaviour that promotes abstinence
  2. State seven reasons why young people must abstain from pre-marital sex.
  3. Define Abstinence
  4. Mention five types of abstinence
  5. State three reasons why young people engage in pre-marital sex.

 

WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

  1. ———extend abstinence during treatment for addiction. A. Incentives B. Deceptive C. Praises D. Encouraging
  2. The longer students are continuously abstinent, the greater their chances of maintaining future———- A. abstinence B. Deceptive C. Praises D. Encouraging
  3. ———–is the practice and promotion of complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages. A. Teetotalism B. Teetota C. Teeto D. Teetotal
  4. ———–is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. A. Abstinence B. Incentives C. Teetotalism D. none
  5. ———–is the practice of a diet that excludes meat (including game, marine mammals and slaughter by-products), poultry, fowl, fish, shellfish and other sea creatures. A. Vegetarianism B. Animalitarianism C. Fishrianism D. None of the above

THEORY

  1. State three reasons why young people engage in pre-marital sex.
  2. State three types of abstinence.

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